: 2013

1. :


2. ; :

a). observation

b). mathematical

Text 1A.
What is the geodesy?

What is the geodesy? Who needs it and why? These are some of the questions asked by many people. Actually, geodesy is nothing new having been around for centuries. Webster defines geodesy as "that branch of applied mathematics which determines by observation and measurement. the exact positions of the points and the figures and areas of large portions of the Earth's, the shape and size of the earth, and the variations of terrestrial gravity". It is a specialized application of several familiar facets of basic mathematical and physical concepts. In practice, geodesy uses the principles of mathematics, astronomy and physics, and applies them within the capabilities of modem engineering and technology.
Geodesy is a science, the oldest earth (geo-) science, in fact. It was born of fear and curiosity, driven by a desire to predict natural happenings and calls for the understanding of these happenings. The classical definition, according to one of the "fathers of geodesy", Melmert, reads: "Geodesy is the science of measuring and portraying the earth's surface". Nowadays, we understand the scope of geodesy to be somewhat wider. It is captured by the following definition: "Geodesy is the discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the earth, including its gravity field, in a three-dimensional time varying space."
Simply speaking, geodesy is the science of measuring and monitoring the size and shape of the Earth. Geodesists basically assign addresses to points all over the Earth. If you were to stick pins in a model of the Earth and then give each of those pins an address, then you would be doing what a geodesist does. By looking at the height, angles, and distances between these locations, geodesists create a spatial reference system that everyone can use.
Building roads and bridges, connecting land surveys, and making maps are some of the important activities that depend on a spatial reference system. For example, if you build a bridge, you need to know where to start on both sides of the river. If you don't, your bridge may not meet in the middle.
As positioning and navigation have become fundamental to the functions of society, geodesy has become increasingly important. Geodesy helps the transportation industry ensure safety and reliability, while reducing costs. Without geodesy, planes might land next to- rather than at -airports and ships could crash onto the land. Geodesy also helps shipping companies save time and money by shortening their ships' and airplanes routes and reducing fuel consumption.
Geologists, oceanographers, meteorologists, and even paleontologists use geodesy to understand physical processes on, above, and within the Earth. Because geodesy makes extremely accurate measurements (to the centimeter level), scientists can use its results to determine exactly how much the Earth's surface has changed over very short and very long periods of time.
The Earth's surface changes for many reasons. For instance, its surface rises and falls about 30 centimeters (about 1 foot) every day due to the gravitation influences of the moon and the sun. The Earth's outermost layer, the crust, is made up of a dozen or more "plates" that ride atop a sea of molten rock, called magma, which flows beneath the surface of the Earth
Plate tectonics is the scientific discipline that looks at how these plates shift and interact, especially in relation to earthquakes and volcanoes. Although these phenomena are violent and usually affect large areas of land, even smaller events, such as erosion and storms, have an impact on shaping the Earth's surface. Geodesy helps us to determine exactly where and how much the Earth's surface is changing
Geodesy may be divided into the areas of global geodesy,, national geodetic surveys, and plane surveying. Global geodesy is responsible for the determination of the figure of the Earth and of the external gravity field. A geodetic survey establishes the fundamentals for the determination of the surface and gravity field of the country. This is realised by the coordinates and gravity values of a sufficiently large number of control points, arranged in geodetic and gravimetric networks. In this fundamental work, curvature and the gravity field of the earth must be considered. In plane surveying (topographic surveying, cadastral surveying, engineering surveying), the details of the terrain are obtained. In plane surveying, the horizontal plane is generally sufficient.

3. .

A smooth surface
To rise to the surface
To surface a road with gravel
An uneven surface
Surface mail
Accurate scales
Quick and accurate with figures
Molten steel
A molten image
The impact a new ideas on discounted students
The metric system of measurement
The measurements of a room
To shift a burden fr om one shoulder to the other
To shift the cargo
To sit in the comfortable position
To fix a ship’s position
The exact size of the room
Exactly right
An exact memory
In the previous century
To define the boundaries
Defined duties
Centre of gravity
Acute angle
Right angle
Obtuse angle
The distance between two points
To measure distance in kilometers
To be a great distance off
Applied sciences
In the shape of a square
Clouds of different shapes
To make a reference to a dictionary
A man of keen observation
To observe silence/ economy/ laws/ customs

4. .

1. state of being advantageously placed; way in which sth or sb is placed; place where sth or sb is or stands
2. outer form; total effect produced by outlines of sth
3. space between two lines or surfaces that meet
4. finding in size, extent, volume, degree, etc of sth
5. real or imaginary mark of the position, in space or tome
6. measure of space between two points or places
7. the outside of any object; top of the liquid
8. details of where a person may be found and where letters may be delivered
9. force of attraction between any two objects
10. hard surface, the outer position

5. , .

6. : earth, land, ground, soil. :

1. How far does your...extend?
2. The frost has made the ... hard.
3. The moon goes around the ... and the ... goes round the sun.
4. In this area the ... is very poor.
5. The balloon burst and fell to the....
6. After six months of traveling they reached ... at last.

7. , .

8. . , Thats right …, , Thats wrong :

1. To build a bridge, you need to know wh ere to start on both sides of the river.

2. Astronomy is the oldest earth science.

3. In modern society navigation and positioning have fundamental functions.

4. Measurements made by geodesists are very precise.

5. Magma is a sea of molten rock which flows above the surface of the Earth.

6. Modern technology uses the possibilities of geodesy.

7. Global geodesy is responsible for the gravity field of the country.

9. :

1. What is the classical definition of geodesy?

2. What sciences are connected with geodesy?

3. What do geodesists create?

4. How does geodesy help the transportation industry?

5. What is the connection between geodesy and physical processes of the Earth?

6. Why does the Earths surface change?

7. How do earthquakes and volcanoes affect the Earth?

8. What areas may geodesy be divided into?

10. , .9.